BCG Vaccination for Healthcare Workers in COVID-19 Pandemic

Sponsor
TASK Applied Science (Other)
Overall Status
Completed
CT.gov ID
NCT04379336
Collaborator
(none)
1,000
Enrollment
1
Location
2
Arms
20
Actual Duration (Months)
50.1
Patients Per Site Per Month

Study Details

Study Description

Brief Summary

A novel betacoronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, is spreading rapidly throughout the world. A large epidemic in South Africa may overwhelm available hospital capacity and healthcare resources which would be worsened by absenteeism of healthcare workers and other frontline staff (HCW). Strategies to prevent morbidity and mortality of HCW are desperately needed to safeguard continuous patient care. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is a vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), with protective non-specific effects against other respiratory tract infections in in vitro and in vivo studies, with reported morbidity and mortality reductions as high as 70%. We hypothesize that a BCG vaccination may reduce the morbidity and mortality of healthcare workers during the COVID-19 outbreak in South Africa.

Condition or DiseaseIntervention/TreatmentPhase
  • Biological: Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)
  • Other: Placebo Comparator
Phase 3

Detailed Description

Morbidity and mortality attributable to COVID-19 is devastating global health systems and economies. Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccination has been in use for many decades to prevent severe forms of tuberculosis in children. Studies have also shown a combination of improved long-term innate or trained immunity (through epigenetic reprogramming of myeloid cells) and adaptive responses after BCG vaccination, which leads to non-specific protective effects in adults. Observational studies have shown that countries with routine BCG vaccination programs have significantly less reported cases and deaths of COVID-19, but such studies are prone to significant bias and need confirmation. To date, in the absence of direct evidence, WHO does not recommend BCG for the prevention of COVID-19.

This project aims to investigate in a timely manner whether and why BCG-revaccination can reduce infection rate and/or disease severity in health care workers during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in South Africa. These objectives will be achieved with a blinded, randomised controlled trial of BCG revaccination versus placebo in exposed front-line staff in hospitals in Cape Town. Observations will include the rate of infection with COVID-19 as well as the occurrence of mild, moderate or severe ambulatory respiratory tract infections, hospitalisation, need for oxygen, mechanical ventilation or death. HIV-positive individuals will be excluded. Safety of the vaccines will be monitored. A secondary endpoint is the occurrence of latent or active tuberculosis. Initial sample size and follow-up duration is at least 500 workers and 52 weeks. Statistical analysis will be model-based and ongoing in real time with frequent interim analyses and optional increases of both sample size or observation time, based on the unforeseeable trajectory of the South African COVID-19 epidemic, available funds and recommendations of an independent data and safety monitoring board.

Given the immediate threat of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic the trial has been designed as a pragmatic study with highly feasible endpoints that can be continuously measured. This allows for the most rapid identification of a beneficial outcome that would lead to immediate dissemination of the results, vaccination of the control group and outreach to the health authorities to consider BCG vaccination for all qualifying health care workers.

Study Design

Study Type:
Interventional
Actual Enrollment :
1000 participants
Allocation:
Randomized
Intervention Model:
Parallel Assignment
Intervention Model Description:
Efficacy will be determined based on documented SARS-CoV-2 infection and incidence of hospitalization. The analysis will be an intention-to-treat analysis with estimation of hazard ratio between the two arms using a Cox proportional hazard model. Adverse events will be summarized using descriptive statistics per study arm. The analysis will be a model-based analysis of cumulative data on general health status as a function of risk factors, treatment arm and time.Efficacy will be determined based on documented SARS-CoV-2 infection and incidence of hospitalization. The analysis will be an intention-to-treat analysis with estimation of hazard ratio between the two arms using a Cox proportional hazard model. Adverse events will be summarized using descriptive statistics per study arm. The analysis will be a model-based analysis of cumulative data on general health status as a function of risk factors, treatment arm and time.
Masking:
Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Masking Description:
Double Blinded
Primary Purpose:
Prevention
Official Title:
Reducing Morbidity and Mortality in Health Care Workers Exposed to SARS-CoV-2 by Enhancing Non-specific Immune Responses Through Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Vaccination, a Randomized Controlled Trial
Actual Study Start Date :
May 4, 2020
Actual Primary Completion Date :
Jan 2, 2022
Actual Study Completion Date :
Jan 2, 2022

Arms and Interventions

ArmIntervention/Treatment
Experimental: Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)

Participants will receive an intradermal injection of 0.1ml of the suspended BCG vaccine which accounts for 0.075mg of attenuated Mycobacterium bovis. BCG-Vaccin SSI [Statens Serum Institut], Danish strain 1331.

Biological: Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)
BCG vaccine will be given intradermally in the upper arm after randomization.
Other Names:
  • BCG-Vaccin SSI [Statens Serum Institut], Danish strain 1331
  • Placebo Comparator: Placebo

    The placebo used for this study is 0.9% Sodium Chloride (NaCl). Participants that are randomized to the control arm will receive a placebo injection of 0.1ml 0.9% NaCl, which is the same volume and has the same colour as the suspended BCG vaccine.

    Other: Placebo Comparator
    Placebo injection will be given intradermally in the upper arm after randomization.
    Other Names:
  • 0.9% Sodium Chloride
  • Outcome Measures

    Primary Outcome Measures

    1. Incidence of HCWs hospitalized due to COVID-19 per arm [52 weeks]

      To compare the incidence of HCWs hospitalized due to COVID-19 per arm.

    Secondary Outcome Measures

    1. Incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection per arm [52 weeks]

      To determine the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in HCW by molecular or serological testing (as available) at entry, 10, 26 and/or 52 weeks.

    2. Incidence of upper respiratory tract infections per arm [52 weeks]

      To compare the incidence of symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection per arm.

    3. Days of unplanned absenteeism due to COVID-19 or any reason per arm [52 weeks]

      To compare the number of days of (unplanned) absenteeism because of documented SARS-CoV-2 infection, COVID-19 or any reason per arm.

    4. Incidence of hospitalization for any reason per arm [52 weeks]

      To compare the incidence of hospitalization of HCW for any reason per arm.

    5. Incidence of intensive care unit admission per arm [52 weeks]

      To compare the incidence of intensive care admission of HCW due to COVID-19 or any reason per arm.

    6. Incidence of death per arm [52 weeks]

      To compare the incidence of death of HCW due to COVID-19 or any reason per arm.

    7. Prevalence of latent TB infection [52 weeks]

      To describe the prevalence of latent TB infection as determined by interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) at enrolment and at week 52.

    8. Incidence of active TB per arm [52 weeks]

      To compare the incidence of active TB of HCW per arm.

    9. Compare the effect of latent TB on morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19 per arm [52 weeks]

      To compare the effect of latent TB infection on morbidity and mortality of HCW due to COVID-19 per arm. The risk of morbidity and mortality of latent TB infected individuals is not known, we will examine whether there is a higher risk of disease severity and poor outcomes in this group.

    10. Incidence of treatment related adverse events [52 weeks]

      To compare the incidence of grade 2 or higher adverse events and vaccination site reactions per arm.

    Eligibility Criteria

    Criteria

    Ages Eligible for Study:
    18 Years and Older
    Sexes Eligible for Study:
    All
    Accepts Healthy Volunteers:
    Yes
    Inclusion Criteria:
    • Men and women aged ≥18 years

    • HCW or other frontline staff currently in contact with, or anticipated to be in contact with, patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

    • Ability and willingness to provide informed consent.

    • Can be reached by mobile phone for follow-up

    Exclusion Criteria:
    • Known allergy to (components of) the BCG vaccine or serious reaction to prior BCG administration.

    • Known active tuberculosis or any other active or uncontrolled condition that, in the opinion of the investigator or designee, makes participation unsafe or makes it difficult to collect follow-up data over the study period.

    • HIV-1 infection

    • NOTE: If evidence of recent HIV negative test is not available, rapid point-of-care testing will be undertaken as part of screening with a separate informed consent process.

    • Symptoms of respiratory tract infection which, in the opinion of the investigator or designee, is likely to interfere with the objectives of the study.

    • Known medical history of any of the following immunocompromised states:

    • Neutropenia (less than 500 neutrophils/mm3)

    • Lymphopenia (less than 400 lymphocytes/mm3)

    • Solid organ or bone marrow transplantation

    • Primary immunodeficiency

    • Active solid or non-solid malignancy or lymphoma within the prior two years

    • Pregnancy and breastfeeding

    • Current treatment with the following medications:

    • Chemotherapy

    • Anti-cytokine therapies

    • Current treatment with oral or intravenous steroids defined as daily doses of 10mg prednisone or equivalent for longer than 3 months

    • Any experimental, unproven treatment against SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 including but not limited to chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta-1a.

    Contacts and Locations

    Locations

    SiteCityStateCountryPostal Code
    1TASK FoundationCape TownWestern CapeSouth Africa7500

    Sponsors and Collaborators

    • TASK Applied Science

    Investigators

    None specified.

    Study Documents (Full-Text)

    None provided.

    More Information

    Publications

    Responsible Party:
    TASK Applied Science
    ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
    NCT04379336
    Other Study ID Numbers:
    • TASK-008 BCG-CORONA
    First Posted:
    May 7, 2020
    Last Update Posted:
    Jan 25, 2022
    Last Verified:
    Oct 1, 2021
    Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
    No
    Plan to Share IPD:
    No
    Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product:
    No
    Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product:
    No
    Keywords provided by TASK Applied Science
    Additional relevant MeSH terms:

    Study Results

    No Results Posted as of Jan 25, 2022