BEEHIVE: The Efficacy of the 2023-2024 Updated COVID-19 Vaccines Against COVID-19 Infection
The purpose of this research study is to find out how well two different 2023-2024 updated COVID-19 vaccines protect people from COVID-19 (the disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus), and to determine if getting a 2023-2024 updated vaccine provides better protection from COVID-19 than not getting a vaccine.
If the participant chooses to get a 2023-2024 updated COVID-19 vaccine as part of this study, they will have a 50/50 chance of receiving either the Novavax or Pfizer mRNA vaccine.
If the participant decides not to get a 2023-2024 updated COVID-19 vaccine, the participant can still participate in other study activities.
An online enrollment survey
An in-person enrollment visit
Weekly online surveys for 20 weeks
Weekly COVID-19 tests for 20 weeks
Additional online surveys if you have COVID-19 symptoms or tested positive for COVID-19.
Additional COVID-19 tests if you have COVID-19 symptoms or tested positive.
Online survey questions in the middle and at the end of the study
|Condition or Disease
For the BEEHIVE Study, UT seeks to enroll 1,500 participants living in the greater Salt Lake City area during the upcoming 2023-2024 COVID-19 season. Participants who intend to get vaccinated with the 2023-2024 updated COVID-19 vaccine (n=1200) will be randomized into the NVX vaccine group or the Pfizer mRNA vaccine group. Participants will be randomized 1:1 to receive 1 dose of the NVX vaccine versus 1 dose of the Pfizer mRNA vaccine from October to December 2023 (dates may vary slightly based on vaccine availability). Participants who decide not to receive a 2023-2024 updated COVID-19 vaccine during this period will be placed in a non-randomized comparison group (n=300).
Participants in all three study arms will complete an online enrollment survey and will self-schedule an in-person enrollment visit. During the visit, all participants will receive a supply of at-home rapid antigen tests for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Those who choose to be in the vaccinated group will also receive either the Novavax vaccine or the Pfizer mRNA vaccine at random. On the first, second, and seventh day after receiving the vaccine, participants will complete an online post-vaccination survey. Beginning after the enrollment visit for a period of 24 weeks, all participants will complete a weekly rapid at-home test and a weekly online survey that surveils for COVID-like illness (CLI)-associated SARS-CoV-2 virus infection, defined as symptoms in the past 7 days including: fever; chills; malaise; fatigue; headache; cough; shortness of breath; sore throat; runny nose or nasal congestion; nausea or vomiting; diarrhea; muscle or body aches; or change in smell or taste. Participants will upload a photo of each weekly test result to the study portal. Those who report new CLI symptoms and those who test positive on their at-home test will complete additional online surveys concerning their illness, as well as another at-home test on the first and third day after the original test. Additionally, all participants will complete a mid- and end-of study survey about their work, health, and opinions about COVID-19, and any COVID-19 and influenza vaccines received. Finally, participants who tested positive for COVID-19 during the study or who had COVID-19 symptoms but did not test positive will complete an online survey about the duration of symptoms and impact on their health. By Summer 2024, study staff will inform participants when the weekly surveys will end and when to stop testing. At the end of the study, participants in the vaccinated group will be notified of which study vaccine they received.
Arms and Interventions
|Active Comparator: Novavax COVID-19 booster
Participants will receive a single dose (0.5 ml) of study vaccine Novavax COVID-19 vaccine, 2023-2024 formula (XBB containing) in the deltoid muscle of the arm.
Biological: Novavax COVID-19 vaccine (2023-2024 formula XBB containing)
Participants will receive a single dose of the Novavax vaccine.
|Active Comparator: Pfizer COVID-19 booster
Participants will receive a single dose (0.3 ml) of study vaccine Pfizer mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, 2023-2024 formula (XBB containing) in the deltoid muscle of the arm.
Biological: Pfizer COVID-19 mRNA vaccine (2023-2024 formula XBB containing)
Participants will receive a single dose of the Pfizer vaccine.
|No Intervention: Non-boosted comparison group
Participants will not receive a dose of the study vaccine.
Primary Outcome Measures
- To determine if getting a 2023-2024 updated COVID-19 vaccine provides better protection from COVID-19 (the disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus) than not getting an 2023-2024 updated COVID-19 vaccine. [up to 24 weeks post vaccination or study enrollment date]
How many participants who received the 2023-2024 updated COVID-19 vaccine developed Covid-like illness (CLI)-associated SARS-CoV-2 infection (diagnosed by study rapid antigen tests) compared with how many participant who declined the updated vaccine. Comparing the number of infections in each group to calculate the hazard ratios of Covid-like illness (CLI)-associated SARS-CoV-2 infection among participants who receive the 2023-2024 updated COVID-19 vaccine and participant who decline the updated vaccine. Beginning time at risk starts with the first active surveillance contact. End of time at risk is illness onset with rapid antigen test confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection or the last submitted response to the study surveillance.
- Comparing how well two different 2023-2024 updated COVID-19 vaccines protect people from COVID-19 (the disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus) [up to 24 weeks post vaccination or study enrollment date]
How many participants who received the 2023-2024 updated Novavax COVID-19 vaccine developed Covid-like illness (CLI)-associated SARS-CoV-2 infection (diagnosed by study rapid antigen tests) compared with how many participant participants who received the 2023-2024 updated Pfizer mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Comparing the number of infections in each group to calculate the hazard ratios of Covid-like illness (CLI)-associated SARS-CoV-2 infection among participants who receive the Novavax vaccine and participant who received the Pfizer mRNA vaccine.
Age ≥18 years
Previously received ≥ 2-doses of US FDA-authorized mRNA vaccines
Comfortable reading and responding to text messages and emails sent in English
Plan to remain in the greater Salt Lake City area for the next 12 months
Daily access to the internet (via cell phone, laptop, desktop, or tablet) and a phone with text messaging capabilities
Willingness to complete weekly symptom and illness surveillance surveys sent via text and email
Willingness to complete an online survey at enrollment, mid-study, and end-of-study surveys
Willingness to be contacted periodically by study staff via text, email, and/or telephone as part of study activities
Willingness to self-collect rapid antigen tests (RAT; approved by FDA EUA for COVID-19 detection) weekly and when prompted for study purposes, and to send results via the study portal
Willingness to self-collect additional rapid antigen test (approved by FDA EUA for COVID-19 detection) if experiencing a qualifying symptomatic illness or upon RAT-confirmation of an asymptomatic infection
Willingness to attend in-person visit to receive supply of rapid antigen tests and training on their use (all participants) and to receive a COVID-19 booster (if in randomized group)
Lives with another person who is already enrolled in this study as reported by the subject on the Eligibility Survey (Appendix C. Eligibility Survey)
Previous hypersensitivity reaction to the study vaccines as reported by the subject on the Eligibility Survey (Appendix C. Eligibility Survey)
Recent infection [Real time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction assay (RT-PCR) and/or RAT confirmed infection ≤ 90 days of trial vaccine administration
Receipt of a COVID-19 vaccine within ≤ 90 days of trial vaccine administration
Participation in other vaccine trials
Medical history of immunosuppression
Receipt of J&J vaccine prior to study enrollment
Receipt of any investigational prevention therapies for SARS-CoV-2 infections, such as prophylactic antiviral medications or other immune system modifying interventions within ≤ 90 days of trial vaccine administration
Unwillingness to provide electronic consent
Unwillingness to self-report occupation, work responsibilities, and prior COVID-19 illness.
Contacts and Locations
LocationsNo locations specified.
Sponsors and Collaborators
- Sarang K. Yoon, DO, MOH
- Principal Investigator: Sarang K Yoon, DO, University of Utah
Study Documents (Full-Text)None provided.