The Role of Hepatic Denervation in the Dysregulation of Glucose Metabolism in Liver Transplant Recipients

Sponsor
Albert Einstein College of Medicine (Other)
Overall Status
Suspended
CT.gov ID
NCT03685773
Collaborator
(none)
60
Enrollment
1
Location
12
Arms
25
Anticipated Duration (Months)
2.4
Patients Per Site Per Month

Study Details

Study Description

Brief Summary

It is believed that important brain centers send signals through the vagus nerve to the liver to suppress the amount of glucose (sugar) that gets produced. People who have received liver transplants have had their vagus nerve cut during transplantation, and many of these individuals have diabetes at one year post-transplant. The goals of this study are: to see whether metabolic control centers in the brain can still be activated normally with the medication diazoxide in patients who have had a liver transplant, and to understand whether disrupting the vagus nerve would result in excess glucose being produced by the liver (ie. a potential mechanism for why these patients develop diabetes).

Condition or DiseaseIntervention/TreatmentPhase
Phase 2

Detailed Description

In this study, investigators will study both diabetic and non-diabetic individuals who are otherwise healthy more than one year after receiving a liver transplant. They will participate in at least one of the following two parts of this study: The first involves functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and the second is using a day-long infusion study called a "pancreatic clamp."

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a technique for measuring and mapping brain activity that is noninvasive and safe. This technique relies on the fact that blood flow in the brain and the activity of brain cells are coupled. Investigators will observe the activity of metabolically-relevant areas of the brain by activating potassium channels with diazoxide at baseline and at 2-hour intervals vs when given placebo.

In the pancreatic clamp study, glucose (a sugar) and insulin (a hormone produced in the pancreas that regulates the amount of sugar in the blood) are infused with an intravenous catheter. Blood samples are collected periodically throughout the procedure to measure blood sugar levels and the levels of several hormones that are found in the body which are related to glucose metabolism. The rates of endogenous glucose production (a measure of the body's production of sugar) will be measured as the main measurement of the study.

All participants will be screened prior to study enrollment. For the fMRI studies, eligible participants will come on two separate occasions for day-long study visits (one day in which the brain will be imaged before and after receiving diazoxide (a potassium channel activator), and one day in which the brain will be imaged before and after placebo. For the pancreatic clamp studies, eligible participants will come on two separate occasions for day-long study visits (one study with diazoxide, and one study with placebo). All studies in participants with type 2 diabetes will include overnight admissions prior to the study day for gradual normalizing of blood glucose through the infusion of insulin. Participants without diabetes will not have to stay for an overnight admission. Study participants with type 2 diabetes will also be eligible for an additional study in which Nicotinic Acid will be infused overnight to lower free fatty acid (FFA) levels. It will be determined whether FFA lowering will impact the fMRI studies and clamp studies that will be performed the next day.

Study Design

Study Type:
Interventional
Anticipated Enrollment :
60 participants
Allocation:
Non-Randomized
Intervention Model:
Crossover Assignment
Masking:
Single (Participant)
Masking Description:
The subject will be blinded to which study drug is received first (Drug or Placebo).
Primary Purpose:
Basic Science
Official Title:
The Role of Hepatic Denervation in the Dysregulation of Glucose Metabolism in Liver Transplant Recipients
Anticipated Study Start Date :
Nov 1, 2021
Anticipated Primary Completion Date :
Dec 1, 2023
Anticipated Study Completion Date :
Dec 1, 2023

Arms and Interventions

ArmIntervention/Treatment
Experimental: MRI: Non-diabetic transplant (Diazoxide)

Diazoxide (up to 7 mg/kg)

Drug: Diazoxide
MRI studies: Non-diabetic and T2D participants will receive diazoxide (up to 7 mg/kg) between baseline MRI scan and second MRI scan. Clamp studies: Non-diabetic participants will not require an overnight admission. They will receive diazoxide (up to 7 mg/kg) and undergo the pancreatic clamp study. Type 2 diabetic participants will be admitted the evening before the study day to normalize blood sugar levels. They will then receive diazoxide (up to 7 mg/kg) the next morning and undergo the pancreatic clamp study.
Other Names:
  • Proglycem
  • Placebo Comparator: MRI: Non-diabetic transplant (Placebo)

    Taste-matched placebo for diazoxide

    Drug: Placebo (for diazoxide)
    MRI studies: Non-diabetic and T2D participants will receive placebo (for diazoxide) between baseline MRI scan and second MRI scan. Clamp studies: Non-diabetic participants will not require an overnight admission. They will receive a taste-matched placebo (for diazoxide) and undergo the pancreatic clamp study. Type 2 diabetic participants will be admitted the evening before the study day to normalize blood sugar levels. They will then receive a taste-matched placebo (for diazoxide) the next morning and undergo the pancreatic clamp study.

    Experimental: MRI: T2D transplant (Diazoxide)

    Diazoxide (up to 7 mg/kg)

    Drug: Diazoxide
    MRI studies: Non-diabetic and T2D participants will receive diazoxide (up to 7 mg/kg) between baseline MRI scan and second MRI scan. Clamp studies: Non-diabetic participants will not require an overnight admission. They will receive diazoxide (up to 7 mg/kg) and undergo the pancreatic clamp study. Type 2 diabetic participants will be admitted the evening before the study day to normalize blood sugar levels. They will then receive diazoxide (up to 7 mg/kg) the next morning and undergo the pancreatic clamp study.
    Other Names:
  • Proglycem
  • Placebo Comparator: MRI: T2D transplant (Placebo)

    Taste-matched placebo for diazoxide

    Drug: Placebo (for diazoxide)
    MRI studies: Non-diabetic and T2D participants will receive placebo (for diazoxide) between baseline MRI scan and second MRI scan. Clamp studies: Non-diabetic participants will not require an overnight admission. They will receive a taste-matched placebo (for diazoxide) and undergo the pancreatic clamp study. Type 2 diabetic participants will be admitted the evening before the study day to normalize blood sugar levels. They will then receive a taste-matched placebo (for diazoxide) the next morning and undergo the pancreatic clamp study.

    Experimental: Clamp: Non-diabetic transplant (Diazoxide)

    Diazoxide (up to 7 mg/kg) before pancreatic clamp study

    Drug: Diazoxide
    MRI studies: Non-diabetic and T2D participants will receive diazoxide (up to 7 mg/kg) between baseline MRI scan and second MRI scan. Clamp studies: Non-diabetic participants will not require an overnight admission. They will receive diazoxide (up to 7 mg/kg) and undergo the pancreatic clamp study. Type 2 diabetic participants will be admitted the evening before the study day to normalize blood sugar levels. They will then receive diazoxide (up to 7 mg/kg) the next morning and undergo the pancreatic clamp study.
    Other Names:
  • Proglycem
  • Placebo Comparator: Clamp: Non-diabetic transplant (Placebo)

    Taste-matched placebo (for diazoxide) before pancreatic clamp study

    Drug: Placebo (for diazoxide)
    MRI studies: Non-diabetic and T2D participants will receive placebo (for diazoxide) between baseline MRI scan and second MRI scan. Clamp studies: Non-diabetic participants will not require an overnight admission. They will receive a taste-matched placebo (for diazoxide) and undergo the pancreatic clamp study. Type 2 diabetic participants will be admitted the evening before the study day to normalize blood sugar levels. They will then receive a taste-matched placebo (for diazoxide) the next morning and undergo the pancreatic clamp study.

    Experimental: Clamp: T2D transplant (Diazoxide)

    Diazoxide (up to 7 mg/kg) before pancreatic clamp study

    Drug: Diazoxide
    MRI studies: Non-diabetic and T2D participants will receive diazoxide (up to 7 mg/kg) between baseline MRI scan and second MRI scan. Clamp studies: Non-diabetic participants will not require an overnight admission. They will receive diazoxide (up to 7 mg/kg) and undergo the pancreatic clamp study. Type 2 diabetic participants will be admitted the evening before the study day to normalize blood sugar levels. They will then receive diazoxide (up to 7 mg/kg) the next morning and undergo the pancreatic clamp study.
    Other Names:
  • Proglycem
  • Placebo Comparator: Clamp: T2D transplant (Placebo)

    Taste-matched placebo (for diazoxide) before pancreatic clamp study

    Drug: Placebo (for diazoxide)
    MRI studies: Non-diabetic and T2D participants will receive placebo (for diazoxide) between baseline MRI scan and second MRI scan. Clamp studies: Non-diabetic participants will not require an overnight admission. They will receive a taste-matched placebo (for diazoxide) and undergo the pancreatic clamp study. Type 2 diabetic participants will be admitted the evening before the study day to normalize blood sugar levels. They will then receive a taste-matched placebo (for diazoxide) the next morning and undergo the pancreatic clamp study.

    Experimental: Clamp: T2D transplant (Diazoxide + Nicotinic Acid)

    Nicotinic acid infusion and diazoxide (up to 7 mg/kg) before pancreatic clamp study

    Drug: Diazoxide
    MRI studies: Non-diabetic and T2D participants will receive diazoxide (up to 7 mg/kg) between baseline MRI scan and second MRI scan. Clamp studies: Non-diabetic participants will not require an overnight admission. They will receive diazoxide (up to 7 mg/kg) and undergo the pancreatic clamp study. Type 2 diabetic participants will be admitted the evening before the study day to normalize blood sugar levels. They will then receive diazoxide (up to 7 mg/kg) the next morning and undergo the pancreatic clamp study.
    Other Names:
  • Proglycem
  • Drug: Nicotinic acid
    Type 2 diabetic participants in this arm will receive a nicotinic acid infusion to lower free fatty acid levels. They will then receive diazoxide (up to 7 mg/kg) the next morning and undergo the MRI or pancreatic clamp study.
    Other Names:
  • Niacin
  • Experimental: Clamp: T2D transplant (Placebo + Nicotinic Acid)

    Nicotinic acid infusion and placebo (for diazoxide) before pancreatic clamp study

    Drug: Placebo (for diazoxide)
    MRI studies: Non-diabetic and T2D participants will receive placebo (for diazoxide) between baseline MRI scan and second MRI scan. Clamp studies: Non-diabetic participants will not require an overnight admission. They will receive a taste-matched placebo (for diazoxide) and undergo the pancreatic clamp study. Type 2 diabetic participants will be admitted the evening before the study day to normalize blood sugar levels. They will then receive a taste-matched placebo (for diazoxide) the next morning and undergo the pancreatic clamp study.

    Drug: Nicotinic acid
    Type 2 diabetic participants in this arm will receive a nicotinic acid infusion to lower free fatty acid levels. They will then receive diazoxide (up to 7 mg/kg) the next morning and undergo the MRI or pancreatic clamp study.
    Other Names:
  • Niacin
  • Experimental: MRI: T2D transplant (Diazoxide + Nicotinic Acid)

    Nicotinic acid infusion and diazoxide (up to 7 mg/kg)

    Drug: Diazoxide
    MRI studies: Non-diabetic and T2D participants will receive diazoxide (up to 7 mg/kg) between baseline MRI scan and second MRI scan. Clamp studies: Non-diabetic participants will not require an overnight admission. They will receive diazoxide (up to 7 mg/kg) and undergo the pancreatic clamp study. Type 2 diabetic participants will be admitted the evening before the study day to normalize blood sugar levels. They will then receive diazoxide (up to 7 mg/kg) the next morning and undergo the pancreatic clamp study.
    Other Names:
  • Proglycem
  • Drug: Nicotinic acid
    Type 2 diabetic participants in this arm will receive a nicotinic acid infusion to lower free fatty acid levels. They will then receive diazoxide (up to 7 mg/kg) the next morning and undergo the MRI or pancreatic clamp study.
    Other Names:
  • Niacin
  • Experimental: MRI: T2D transplant (Placebo + Nicotinic Acid)

    Nicotinic acid infusion and placebo (for diazoxide)

    Drug: Placebo (for diazoxide)
    MRI studies: Non-diabetic and T2D participants will receive placebo (for diazoxide) between baseline MRI scan and second MRI scan. Clamp studies: Non-diabetic participants will not require an overnight admission. They will receive a taste-matched placebo (for diazoxide) and undergo the pancreatic clamp study. Type 2 diabetic participants will be admitted the evening before the study day to normalize blood sugar levels. They will then receive a taste-matched placebo (for diazoxide) the next morning and undergo the pancreatic clamp study.

    Drug: Nicotinic acid
    Type 2 diabetic participants in this arm will receive a nicotinic acid infusion to lower free fatty acid levels. They will then receive diazoxide (up to 7 mg/kg) the next morning and undergo the MRI or pancreatic clamp study.
    Other Names:
  • Niacin
  • Outcome Measures

    Primary Outcome Measures

    1. Endogenous glucose production (EGP) [7-7.5 hours]

      Rates of EGP (a measure of the body's production of sugar) will be measured during pancreatic clamp studies, with suppression of pancreatic hormones by somatostatin infusion and basal hormone replacement.

    Secondary Outcome Measures

    1. Change in Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) signal [Baseline, 2 hours post dosing, 4 hours post dosing]

      Change in Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) signal measured using 3T MRI from baseline to 2 hours post dosing, and 2 hours post dosing to 4 hours post dosing. ASL is a measure of brain blood flow, and an increase in ASL is interpreted as an increase in brain activity. Data is collected at three time points during each of the two visits (pre dosing, 2 hours post dosing, 4 hours post dosing). Response to diazoxide is compared between 3 time points for each group, and this response is then compared between non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic liver transplant subjects.

    Eligibility Criteria

    Criteria

    Ages Eligible for Study:
    21 Years to 70 Years
    Sexes Eligible for Study:
    All
    Accepts Healthy Volunteers:
    Yes
    Inclusion Criteria:
    • Liver Transplant at least one year ago

    • Age: 21-70

    Exclusion Criteria:
    • BP > 150/90 or <90/60 on more than one occasion, unless there is a documented history of white coat hypertension by treating physician.

    • Triglycerides > 400 mg/dl and/or Total Cholesterol >300 mg/dl

    • Clinically significant liver dysfunction

    • Clinically significant kidney dysfunction, GFR: <60 mg/dL

    • Anemia: HgB <12.5 for men and <11.0 for women

    • Positive urine drug test. Occasional use of cannabis (once or twice per week) will not be a basis for exclusion.

    • Urinalysis: Clinically significant abnormalities

    • Clinically significant electrolyte abnormalities

    • Smoking >10 cig/day

    • Alcohol: Men >14 drinks/wk or >4 drinks/day, Women >7 drinks/wk or >3 drinks/day

    • History of active hepatitis infection, HIV/AIDS, chronic kidney disease (stage 3 or greater), active cancer, cardiovascular disease or other heart disease, systemic rheumatologic conditions, seizures, bleeding disorders, muscle disease

    • Surgeries that involve removal of endocrine glands except for thyroidectomy (if euthyroid on thyroid hormone replacement - if such history T4 and TSH will be checked)

    • Pregnant women

    • Subject enrolled in another study less than one month prior to the anticipated start date in the proposed study, besides those done by our group

    • Family history: family history of premature cardiac death

    • Allergies to medication administered during study

    • Uncontrolled psychiatric disorders

    • Any condition which in the opinion of the PI makes the subject ill-suited for participation in the study

    Contacts and Locations

    Locations

    SiteCityStateCountryPostal Code
    1Albert Einstein College of MedicineBronxNew YorkUnited States10461

    Sponsors and Collaborators

    • Albert Einstein College of Medicine

    Investigators

    • Principal Investigator: Meredith Hawkins, M.D., M.S., Albert Einstein College of Medicine

    Study Documents (Full-Text)

    None provided.

    More Information

    Publications

    None provided.
    Responsible Party:
    Albert Einstein College of Medicine
    ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
    NCT03685773
    Other Study ID Numbers:
    • 2018-9506
    First Posted:
    Sep 26, 2018
    Last Update Posted:
    Oct 7, 2021
    Last Verified:
    Sep 1, 2021
    Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product:
    Yes
    Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product:
    No
    Product Manufactured in and Exported from the U.S.:
    Yes
    Keywords provided by Albert Einstein College of Medicine
    Additional relevant MeSH terms:

    Study Results

    No Results Posted as of Oct 7, 2021