STRING-COVID: Mental Health Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic Among Migrants in Chile

Sponsor
Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile (Other)
Overall Status
Completed
CT.gov ID
NCT04497636
Collaborator
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico, Chile (Other)
1,092
Enrollment
1
Location
9.5
Actual Duration (Months)
115
Patients Per Site Per Month

Study Details

Study Description

Brief Summary

The mental health of a representative sample of immigrants residing in Santiago, Chile (STRING cohort) was assessed nine months prior to the COVID-19 pandemic (T0). Evidence suggests that social isolation affects mental health by increasing symptoms of anxiety and depression. One of the main components of the current COVID-19 pandemic is the social isolation imposed on the population. This study seeks to explore the short (T1) and long-term (T2) effects of the pandemic on the psychological wellbeing of the cohort.

Specific aims are to

  1. Describe the variations in the levels of mental health problems (i.e. symptoms of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, sleep difficulties) and wellbeing of immigrants during the first (T1) and second follow-up (T2)

  2. Calculate the short (T1) and long-term (T2) effects of social isolation on the levels of mental health problems of the immigrant population, and

  3. Identify risk / protective factors associated with a short (T1) and long-term (T2) increase in mental health problems

Condition or DiseaseIntervention/TreatmentPhase

    Detailed Description

    Participants were interviewed at baseline (T0) 8 months before the COVID-19 pandemic. An online survey will be applied in two follow-up moments during the pandemic:

    1. At 9 months (also 1 month after lockdown measures imposed) (T1)

    2. At 18 months (also 10 months after lockdown measures imposed) (T2)

    Study Design

    Study Type:
    Observational
    Actual Enrollment :
    1092 participants
    Observational Model:
    Cohort
    Time Perspective:
    Prospective
    Official Title:
    Mental Health Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic Among Immigrants in Santiago, Chile (STRING-COVID)
    Actual Study Start Date :
    Jul 3, 2020
    Actual Primary Completion Date :
    Apr 18, 2021
    Actual Study Completion Date :
    Apr 18, 2021

    Outcome Measures

    Primary Outcome Measures

    1. Depressive symptoms [Month 1 (T1) and month 10 (T2)]

      The Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9; Kroenke, Spitzer & Williams, 2001) is used to measure symptoms of depression in accordance with the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder. The questionnaire consists of nine items scored on a four-point Likert scale (0-3), with the range of scores from 0 to 27. Higher scores indicate greater depression severity, and scores above 10 are considered as the cut-off that indicate that the patient is within the depressive area. Specific cut-off for primary care samples in Chile have been found yielding a cut-off of 7 and above for high sensitivity and specificity (Saldivia, Aslan, Cova, Vicente, Inostroza & Rincón, 2019). Changes in depressive symptoms between baseline (T0) and two follow-up points (T1 and T2) will be assessed.

    2. Symptoms of anxiety [Month 1 (T1) and month 10 (T2)]

      The Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7; Spitzer, Kroenke, Williams & Löwe, 2006) is used to measure symptoms of anxiety and worry. The questionnaire consists of seven items scored on a four-point Likert scale (0-3), with the scores ranging from 0 to 21. Specific cut-off for primary care samples in Spain have been found yielding a cut-off of 10 and above for high sensitivity and specificity (García-Campayo et al, 2010). Changes in symptoms of anxiety between baseline (T0) and two follow-up points (T1 and T2) will be assessed.

    Secondary Outcome Measures

    1. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder [Month 1 (T1) and month 10 (T2)]

      The Impact of Events Scale (IES-R; Weiss & Marmar, 1997) is used to measure symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There scale consists of 22 questions which are scored on a five-point Likert scale (0=not at all, 1=a little bit, 2=moderately, 3=quite a bit, 4=extremely). There are three subscales (i.e., avoidance, intrusion, hyperarousal) and the sum of the three subscales scores comprise the total score. A total score ≥33 indicates the likely presence of PTSD using criteria from the Diagnostic Symptom Manual (DSM-IV). Changes in symptoms of post-traumatic stress between the two follow-up points (T1 and T2) will be assessed.

    2. Changes in sleep difficulties [Month 1 (T1) and month 10 (T2)]

      The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI; Bastein CH, et al. 2001) is used to assess the nature, severity, and impact of sleep difficulties. The questionnaire consists of 7 items scored on a five-point Likert scale (0=no problem, 4=very severe problem) with scores ranging from 0 to 28. Changes in symptoms sleep difficulties between the two follow-up points (T1 and T2) will be assessed.

    3. Changes in hazardous and harmful alcohol drinking [Month 1 (T1) and month 10 (T2)]

      Using the three-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C). Changes in hazardous and harmful alcohol drinking between baseline (T0) and two follow-up points (T1 and T2) will be assessed.

    4. Changes in loneliness [Month 1 (T1) and month 10 (T2)]

      Using the three-item Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale. Scores range from 3 to 9 with higher scores indicating higher perceived loneliness. Changes in perceived loneliness between the two follow-up points (T1 and T2) will be assessed.

    5. Change in general physical and mental health [Change from last 2 weeks before pandemic to month 1 (T1) and month 10 (T2)]

      Change in general physical and mental health, self-rated, on a VAS scale from 0 to 100. Higher scores indicate worse self-reported health. Changes in perceived general physical and mental health between the two follow-up points (T1 and T2) will be assessed.

    6. Change in mental health symptoms from last 2 weeks before the pandemic to the last 2 weeks during the COVID-19 pandemic at T1 and T2. [Change from last 2 weeks before pandemic to month 1 (T1) and to month 10 (T2).]

      Change in visual analogue scale-assessed transdiagnostic measures across all psychiatric symptoms in the last 2 weeks compared to the last 2 weeks of "regular life" before the COVID-19 outbreak.

    7. Change in mental health well-being from last 2 weeks before the pandemic to the last 2 weeks during the COVID-19 pandemic at T1 and T2. [Change from last 2 weeks before pandemic to month 1 (T1) and to month 10 (T2).]

      Change in World Health Organization (WHO)-5 well-being in the last 2 weeks compared to the last 2 weeks of "regular life" before the COVID-19 outbreak.

    Eligibility Criteria

    Criteria

    Ages Eligible for Study:
    18 Years and Older
    Sexes Eligible for Study:
    All
    Accepts Healthy Volunteers:
    No
    Inclusion Criteria:
    • Country of birth other than Chile

    • Time since arrival to Chile: 3 months (at baseline)

    Exclusion Criteria:
    • Unable to understand Spanish

    Contacts and Locations

    Locations

    SiteCityStateCountryPostal Code
    1Pontificia Universidad Catolica de ChileSantiagoRMChile7550139

    Sponsors and Collaborators

    • Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile
    • Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico, Chile

    Investigators

    • Principal Investigator: Antonia Errazuriz, PhD, Universidad Catolica de Chile

    Study Documents (Full-Text)

    None provided.

    More Information

    Publications

    None provided.
    Responsible Party:
    Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile
    ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
    NCT04497636
    Other Study ID Numbers:
    • 170519004
    First Posted:
    Aug 4, 2020
    Last Update Posted:
    Nov 16, 2021
    Last Verified:
    Aug 1, 2020
    Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product:
    No
    Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product:
    No
    Keywords provided by Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile
    Additional relevant MeSH terms:

    Study Results

    No Results Posted as of Nov 16, 2021