HOPE: Healthy Opioid Prescription Engagement
This study is a randomized controlled trial across 14 community pharmacies to test the efficacy of the Brief Intervention-Medication Therapy Management intervention (BI-MTM). The establishment of the BI-MTM model will result in a major impact for addressing the opioid epidemic, preventing opioid use disorder and overdose, and safeguarding patient health in a novel community-based service setting.
|Condition or Disease||Intervention/Treatment||Phase|
This study examines a community pharmacy-based intervention to reduce opioid medication misuse. Despite a recent national decline in opioid prescribing, 10.3 million Americans in 2018 reported misusing a prescribed opioid, and within this population, >36% of those who misused obtained the opioid medication by filling a prescription. The point of medication dispensing, namely, the community pharmacy, is an untapped resource to address prescription opioid misuse-especially when considering the >60,000 pharmacies employing >170,000 pharmacists in the US. This study aims to conduct a fully-powered RCT of the BI-MTM intervention in community pharmacy settings that will accomplish 3 Specific Aims. The first Aim will demonstrate the pharmacist-led BI-MTM intervention is superior to standard medication counseling (SMC) for mitigating opioid medication misuse. This will be accomplished by conducting a powered single-blinded randomized trial to test the efficacy of BI-MTM (n=175) vs. SMC (n=175). Participants will be screened/recruited for eligibility at point of dispensing in 14 community pharmacies in Utah, a high opioid prescribing and opioid-adverse event state. Participants will be assessed at baseline, 2, and 6 months for opioid medication misuse. Participant-level state prescription drug monitoring data will also be linked with patient outcomes to assess objective changes in medication misuse behaviors (e.g., early refills and doctor/pharmacy shopping). The second Aim will identify the pathway by which BI-MTM results in improvements for depression, pain, and subsequently opioid misuse. To accomplish this, a path analysis will assess relationships of BI-MTM: (1) on depression, pain, and misuse, (2) depression on misuse, and (3) pain on misuse. The final Aim will explore latent transitions of baseline to post-intervention misuse classes by intervention group. This will be accomplished by using mixture modeling, specifically multi-group latent transition analysis. The observed misuse indicators will be used to estimate latent class transitions across time, grouping by treatment condition and adjusting for baseline covariates. Completing SA1- 3 advance the understanding of BI-MTM efficacy and set the stage for a national multisite trial.
Arms and Interventions
|Experimental: Brief Intervention Medication Therapy Management (BI-MTM)
Brief Intervention Medication Therapy Management (BI-MTM) is the overarching model made up of 4 evidence-based components: Medication Therapy Management (MTM); Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT); naloxone dispensing, and Patient Navigation (PN). Each component is sequentially delivered within the model and addresses a critical aspect of opioid medication misuse and risk. The pharmacy-based portion of BI-MTM (MTM+SBIRT+naloxone) will be delivered by a PharmD level pharmacist, and PN will be delivered by a bachelor's level interventionist.
Behavioral: Patient Navigation
PN involves 8 weekly telephonic sessions lasting 30-45 minutes (telephonic to support lower-costs/sustainability). In session 1, the navigator reviews with the participant a report of scores from the baseline assessment to understand the participant's current health needs/challenges; session 1 also involves development of therapeutic alliance/rapport and goal setting. Sessions 2-4 focus on goal setting and identifying barriers and problem resolutions. The navigator elicits motivation and discusses this in context of readiness to change heath behavior and self-management skills. Sessions 2-4 also involve navigators supporting/assisting patients to fill out paperwork and enroll in needed social services and/or mental/behavioral/physical healthcare, including but not limited to primary care. Sessions 5-7 focus on encouraging and reinforcing treatment adherence, review-ing and identifying other care needs, and offering linkages to service providers as applicable
|Other: Standard of Care
Standard of Care is the treatment as usual condition, which follows federal and Utah state pharmacy requirements for pharmacists where in patients filling prescriptions receive information and opt-in counseling. Specifically, SMC in Utah requires pharmacists to: (1) offer counseling, (2) document counseling has been offered, (3) offer a counseling process for patients not present, and (4) discuss generic substitution.The duration of SMC in the current study is a single 5-10 minute session delivered by a University of Utah pharmacist other than the study pharmacist that possesses a similar level of education and professional licensing.
Other: Standard Medication Counseling (SMC)
SMC participants receive a single medication information/counseling session delivered by a University of Utah pharmacist to: (1) offer counseling, (2) document counseling was offered, (3) offer a counseling process for patients not present (not applicable to this study given all patients must screen in person), and (4) discuss generic substitution.
Primary Outcome Measures
- Change in opioid medication misuse. [6 months]
This outcome will be assessed using the Prescription Opioid Misuse Index (POMI).
Adult (≥18 years)
Not receiving cancer treatment
Who have a positive opioid misuse screen on the POMI will be eligible to learn about this study
Are pregnant (given potential pre/post-natal opioid use complications among pregnant women/offspring
Can-not provide collateral contact information for ≥2 contact persons (to ensure consistent contact/follow up)
Do not have a reliable land line or mobile phone to be contacted by study staff
Are filling only buprenorphine (given some formulations are not indicated for pain)
Plan to leave the area for an extended period of time in the next 6 months
Have had a psychotic and/or manic episode in the last 30 days (before consent, patients will be asked to screen for psychosis
Do not provide permission to access their state prescription drug monitoring data.
Contacts and Locations
|1||University of Utah||Salt Lake City||Utah||United States||84108|
Sponsors and Collaborators
- Jerry Cochran
- National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
- Principal Investigator: Gerald Cochran, PhD, University of Utah
Study Documents (Full-Text)None provided.