MTQT: Comparing Two Behavioral Approaches to Quitting Smoking in Mental Health Settings

Sponsor
Duke University (Other)
Overall Status
Recruiting
CT.gov ID
NCT05030272
Collaborator
National Institutes of Health (NIH) (NIH), University at Buffalo (Other)
450
Enrollment
1
Location
2
Arms
24.3
Anticipated Duration (Months)
18.5
Patients Per Site Per Month

Study Details

Study Description

Brief Summary

The study team will conduct a Multisite Randomized Controlled Trial to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of two approaches for quitting smoking among people with serious mental illness (SMI). The study will compare a novel app tailored to people with SMI, Quit on the Go, to a standard of care smoking cessation intervention. We will test the effectiveness of the Quit on the Go app, an intervention that has demonstrated feasibility and acceptability in the target population, as a tool for smoking cessation in people with SMI.

Participants with SMI will be recruited across 2 sites (Duke University and Univ. at Buffalo).

Condition or DiseaseIntervention/TreatmentPhase
  • Device: Learn to Quit App
  • Behavioral: Brief advice
  • Drug: Nicotine patch
  • Behavioral: Smartphone coaching
  • Drug: Nicotine gum
N/A

Detailed Description

Smoking tobacco shortens the lifespan of adults with serious mental illness by 25 years and contributes to 317 billion dollar expenditures in healthcare, indirect loss of earnings and disability benefits. Determining whether it is possible to deliver more effective and wider reaching smoking cessation interventions to individuals with serious mental illness is a high priority. Smartphone apps are a wide-reaching technology that could provide individuals with serious mental illness the necessary skills for quitting. However, our research has shown that apps developed for the general public have inadequate levels usability and engagement in people with serious mental illness.

In a previous pilot trial of a tailored smoking cessation app for people with serious mental illness, Learn to Quit (NCT03069482), we identified successful recruitment and retention methods for smokers with SMI, demonstrated a 4-fold increase in objectively measured interactions of the novel app, obtained promising cessation rates for the experimental app (12% for Learn to Quit versus 3% for NCI QuitGuide), and identified a reliable methodological approach to conduct a fully-powered randomized controlled trial.

Based on this pilot work, we plan to conduct a clinical trial to test this new model in a diverse and representative sample of the SMI population. Specifically, the proposed trial will test whether a tailored smoking cessation app for people with serious mental illness, Learn to Quit, results in higher levels of smoking abstinence compared to a standard of care intervention for this psychiatric population, Brief Advice. Both interventions will receive combined nicotine replacement therapy. The second aim of this trial is to test a mechanistic model of app efficacy by examining mediators of app engagement and treatment outcomes. Finally, the trial will evaluate the cost-effectiveness of these interventions to inform public health policy regard the use of mHealth in this population.

In a multi-site, two-arm randomized controlled trial, 450 individuals with serious mental illness will be randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In the experimental condition, participants will use the Learn to Quit app. In the comparator condition, participants will receive Brief Advice for smoking cessation. Participants in both conditions will receive combined Nicotine Replacement Therapy (standard dosing of nicotine patch plus 5 week course of nicotine gums). Study duration will be 6 months, with 3 follow-up appointments at 1-month, 3-month, and 6-months. Our proposed methods are appropriate given our established procedures during our pilot trial regard to participant assignment, delivery of interventions, data collection and analysis (NCT03069482).

The proposed study meets NIDA's major programmatic priorities of using innovative technologies (e.g., smartphones) and integrating behavioral and pharmacological interventions to improve substance use treatment and outcomes (NOT-DA-10-019). The proposal addresses a serious problem -- high smoking rates in people with SMI -- in a high priority, high cost population, by delivering a novel behavioral intervention for smoking cessation in "real-world" settings. If shown to be effective, the proposed intervention will provide a new model for delivering inexpensive, widely accessible smoking cessation interventions in adults with SMI.

Study Design

Study Type:
Interventional
Anticipated Enrollment :
450 participants
Allocation:
Randomized
Intervention Model:
Parallel Assignment
Masking:
None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose:
Treatment
Official Title:
Comparing Two Behavioral Approaches to Quitting Smoking in Mental Health Settings
Actual Study Start Date :
Sep 21, 2021
Anticipated Primary Completion Date :
Oct 1, 2023
Anticipated Study Completion Date :
Oct 1, 2023

Arms and Interventions

ArmIntervention/Treatment
Experimental: Learn to Quit

A smartphone app developed by the research team designed for people with serious mental illness, that provides Acceptance and Commitment Therapy skills to address (a) smoking cessation and (b) mental health symptoms. This app intervention is combined with an 8-week course of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) patches and a 5-10 week course of NRT gum. Participants also receive technical smartphone coaching for the first 4 weeks of the study.

Device: Learn to Quit App
A smartphone app developed by the research team designed for people with serious mental illness, that provides Acceptance and Commitment Therapy skills to address (a) smoking cessation and (b) mental health symptoms.

Drug: Nicotine patch
All participants will receive an 8-week course of transdermal nicotine patches. The first 4 weeks of use will be 21mg/24 hours, followed by 2 weeks of 14mg/24 hours patches, and finally 2 weeks of 7mg/24 hours patches.
Other Names:
  • NRT
  • Behavioral: Smartphone coaching
    Participants randomized to the smartphone app intervention will receive 4 weeks of smartphone coaching given by research staff. The coaching is meant to be a time to address any issues that may rise with the participants' study smartphone or app.

    Drug: Nicotine gum
    Each participant enrolled will be given NRT gum (5-10week course) to be taken orally as nicotine cravings arise. Depending on participants' nicotine dependence, they will receive either the 2mg or 4mg (if they smoke within the first 30 minutes of waking) gum pieces per package instructions. We will direct subjects to use them for the first weeks following their quit date, using no more than one every 1-2 hours.
    Other Names:
  • NRT
  • Other: Brief Advice (Standard of Care)

    Brief Advice and Combined Nicotine Replacement Therapy (patches and gum) has been recommended by the US Clinical Practice Guidelines for patients with psychiatric illness. Brief Advice will consist of 20 minutes of guidance about the use of nicotine replacement therapy, and strategies to initiate and maintain a quit attempt. The intervention is combined with an 8-week course of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) patches and a 5-10 week course of NRT gum.

    Behavioral: Brief advice
    Brief Advice will consist of 20 minutes of guidance about the use of nicotine replacement therapy, and strategies to initiate and maintain a quit attempt.

    Drug: Nicotine patch
    All participants will receive an 8-week course of transdermal nicotine patches. The first 4 weeks of use will be 21mg/24 hours, followed by 2 weeks of 14mg/24 hours patches, and finally 2 weeks of 7mg/24 hours patches.
    Other Names:
  • NRT
  • Drug: Nicotine gum
    Each participant enrolled will be given NRT gum (5-10week course) to be taken orally as nicotine cravings arise. Depending on participants' nicotine dependence, they will receive either the 2mg or 4mg (if they smoke within the first 30 minutes of waking) gum pieces per package instructions. We will direct subjects to use them for the first weeks following their quit date, using no more than one every 1-2 hours.
    Other Names:
  • NRT
  • Outcome Measures

    Primary Outcome Measures

    1. CO-verified 7-day point-prevalence abstinence at 6-month follow-up [6 month follow-up]

      Abstinence is determined by a self-report of not smoking any tobacco product for greater than or equal to 7 days prior to Week 24 and biochemically verified by an expired carbon monoxide breath test reading of < 5 ppm at Week 24. If the participant does not meet both criteria, they are not considered abstinent. As per convention, participants are assumed to be smoking if they report smoking at the time-point, cannot be reached to provide data at the time-point, fail to provide a breath sample at the time-point, or provide a breath sample at the time-point that is greater than or equal to 5 ppm.

    Secondary Outcome Measures

    1. Change in average number of cigarettes smoked per day [1 month follow-up]

      Change in self-reported number of cigarettes smoked per day, averaged within groups.

    2. Change in average number of cigarettes smoked per day [3 month follow-up]

      Change in self-reported number of cigarettes smoked per day, averaged within groups.

    3. Change in average number of cigarettes smoked per day [6 month follow-up]

      Change in self-reported number of cigarettes smoked per day, averaged within groups.

    4. Average number of quit attempts per group [1 month follow-up]

      Average number of quit attempts self-reported per group at the specified time point. Quit attempts are defined by no smoking at all for 24 hours or more.

    5. Average number of quit attempts per group [3 month follow-up]

      Average number of quit attempts self-reported per group at the specified time point. Quit attempts are defined by no smoking at all for 24 hours or more.

    6. Average number of quit attempts per group [6 month follow-up]

      Average number of quit attempts self-reported per group at the specified time point. Quit attempts are defined by no smoking at all for 24 hours or more.

    7. Time to 7-day relapse [1 month follow-up]

      Average number of days of abstinence before relapse per group. Relapse defined by an instance of 7 consecutive days of smoking.

    8. Time to 7-day relapse [3 month follow-up]

      Average number of days of abstinence before relapse per group. Relapse defined by an instance of 7 consecutive days of smoking.

    9. Time to 7-day relapse [6 month follow-up]

      Average number of days of abstinence before relapse per group. Relapse defined by an instance of 7 consecutive days of smoking.

    10. 30-day point prevalence abstinence rates [1 month follow-up]

      Percent of subjects in each group self-reporting no smoking at all for greater or equal to 30 days but < 30 days prior to the timepoint.

    11. Biochemically confirmed 30-day point prevalence abstinence rates [3 month follow-up]

      Percent of subjects in each group self-reporting no smoking at all for greater or equal to 30 days but < 30 days prior to the time point. Abstinence is determined by a self-report of not smoking any tobacco product at all during the corresponding time frame period, AND by a result of less than 5 ppm in carbon monoxide breath testing. If the participant does not meet both criteria, they are not considered abstinent.

    12. Biochemically confirmed 30-day point prevalence abstinence rates [6 month follow-up]

      Percent of subjects in each group self-reporting no smoking at all for greater or equal to 30 days but < 30 days prior to the time point. Abstinence is determined by a self-report of not smoking any tobacco product at all during the corresponding time frame period, AND by a result of less than 5 ppm in carbon monoxide breath testing. If the participant does not meet both criteria, they are not considered abstinent.

    13. Prolonged abstinence rates [1 month follow-up]

      Percent of subjects in each group reporting prolonged abstinence. Abstinence is determined by a self-report of not relapsing after their quit date (i.e., not smoking for 7 consecutive days, or not smoking at least once each week for 2 consecutive weeks) following a 2-week grace period.

    14. Prolonged abstinence rates [3 month follow-up]

      Percent of subjects in each group reporting prolonged abstinence. Abstinence is determined by a self-report of not relapsing after their quit date (i.e., not smoking for 7 consecutive days, or not smoking at least once each week for 2 consecutive weeks) following a 2-week grace period.

    15. Prolonged abstinence rates [6 month follow-up]

      Percent of subjects in each group reporting prolonged abstinence. Abstinence is determined by a self-report of not relapsing after their quit date (i.e., not smoking for 7 consecutive days, or not smoking at least once each week for 2 consecutive weeks) following a 2-week grace period.

    16. Continuous abstinence rates [1 month follow-up]

      Percent of subjects in each group self-reporting continuous abstinence (no smoking at all) between target quit date and specified time point.

    17. Continuous abstinence rates [3 month follow-up]

      Percent of subjects in each group self-reporting continuous abstinence (no smoking at all) between target quit date and specified time point. Biochemically verified (CO < 5 ppm).

    18. Continuous abstinence rates [6 month follow-up]

      Percent of subjects in each group self-reporting continuous abstinence (no smoking at all) between target quit date and specified time point. Biochemically verified (CO < 5 ppm).

    Other Outcome Measures

    1. Average app usability scores [1 month follow-up]

      Average self-reported scores of usability on the 10-item System Usability Scale. Scores range from 0-100 with higher scores indicating higher usability of the app.

    2. Average user experience scores [1 month follow-up]

      Average self-reported scores of user experience using an adapted 5-item app user experience scale.

    3. Average user experience scores [3 month follow-up]

      Average self-reported scores of user experience using an adapted 5-item app user experience scale.

    4. Average user experience scores [6 month follow-up]

      Average self-reported scores of user experience using an adapted 5-item app user experience scale.

    5. Average frequency of app use [Weeks 0-24]

      Average frequency of app use over the 24-week study period. Measured by average number of app openings.

    6. Average duration of app use [Weeks 0-24]

      Average duration of app use over the 24-week study period.

    7. Average number of app modules completed [Weeks 0-24]

      Average number of app modules completed over the 24-week study period.

    8. Average acceptance of physical smoking cravings [1 month follow-up]

      Average self-reported scores of acceptance of cravings on the physical sensations subscale of the Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale. Scores range from 4-20 with lower scores indicating more acceptance of smoking cravings.

    9. Average acceptance of physical smoking cravings [3 month follow-up]

      Average self-reported scores of acceptance of cravings on the physical sensations subscale of the Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale. Scores range from 4-20 with lower scores indicating more acceptance of smoking cravings.

    10. Average acceptance of physical smoking cravings [6 month follow-up]

      Average self-reported scores of acceptance of cravings on the physical sensations subscale of the Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale. Scores range from 4-20 with lower scores indicating more acceptance of smoking cravings.

    11. Nicotine patch use [3 month follow-up]

      Average number of days (out of 56 possible) per arm that participants used the nicotine patch.

    12. Nicotine gum use [3 month follow-up]

      Average number of nicotine gum used per arm.

    Eligibility Criteria

    Criteria

    Ages Eligible for Study:
    18 Years and Older
    Sexes Eligible for Study:
    All
    Accepts Healthy Volunteers:
    No
    Inclusion Criteria:
    1. Current DSM-5 diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective, bipolar, or recurring major depressive disorder;

    2. Functional impairment as indicated by a score of_2 or greater on the WHODAS 8 item version

    3. Smoker as indicated by smoking greater than or equal to 5 cigarettes per day over the past 6 months;

    4. Desire to quit smoking as indicated by self-reported serious intention to quitting tobacco within the next 6 months;

    5. Age 18 and older;

    6. Willing and medically eligible to use NRT;

    7. Currently receiving psychiatric treatment and intent to receive treatment for the duration of the study (therapy, medications, etc.).

    Exclusion Criteria

    1. Problematic substance use, as defined by the Addiction Severity Index, within the last 30 days, twice within the past 6 months, or hospitalization for substance abuse within the past year.

    2. Current acute psychotic episode or unsafe to participate in the study as defined by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Psychotic Disorders (Sheehan et al., 1998);

    3. Being pregnant or the intention to become pregnant in the next 6 months;

    4. Currently receiving any pharmacological and/or behavioral intervention or counseling for smoking cessation;

    5. Currently using e-cigarettes or other tobacco products besides cigarettes ≥ 3 days in the past 30 days.

    Contacts and Locations

    Locations

    SiteCityStateCountryPostal Code
    1Duke UniversityDurhamNorth CarolinaUnited States27705

    Sponsors and Collaborators

    • Duke University
    • National Institutes of Health (NIH)
    • University at Buffalo

    Investigators

    • Principal Investigator: Roger Vilardaga, PhD, Duke University

    Study Documents (Full-Text)

    None provided.

    More Information

    Publications

    None provided.
    Responsible Party:
    Duke University
    ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
    NCT05030272
    Other Study ID Numbers:
    • Pro00103637
    • R01DA047301
    First Posted:
    Sep 1, 2021
    Last Update Posted:
    Nov 17, 2021
    Last Verified:
    Oct 1, 2021
    Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
    No
    Plan to Share IPD:
    No
    Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product:
    No
    Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product:
    Yes
    Product Manufactured in and Exported from the U.S.:
    No
    Additional relevant MeSH terms:

    Study Results

    No Results Posted as of Nov 17, 2021