Are Diabetics Type 2 More Prone to Dental Caries?

Sponsor
Queen Mary University of London (Other)
Overall Status
Recruiting
CT.gov ID
NCT04883086
Collaborator
The Novo Nordisk UK Research Foundation (Other)
182
Enrollment
1
Location
25.6
Anticipated Duration (Months)
7.1
Patients Per Site Per Month

Study Details

Study Description

Brief Summary

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is well known for long-term complications to general and oral health. Periodontal disease has a bidirectional association with the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) (Mealey, 2006; Taylor, 2001; Demmer et el.,2008). However, current literature conflicts with regards to dental caries incidence in patients with T2DM (Sampaio, Mello and Alves, 2011).

Objective: To investigate potential protective and risk factors for dental caries among T2DM with vitamin D and HbA1c using clinical, salivary and microbial analyses.

Methods: This project is a case-control clinical study. The study will be conducted at Royal London Dental Hospital, Institute of Dentistry, Bart's Health NHS Trust, London, UK. This study will aim to recruit 182 participants in total with diabetes (type 2), aged ≥18 male or female and participants will be cross-matched with non-diabetes according to age and gender.

Each participant will undergo a baseline screening for around 60 minutes where all the following assessments will be carried out; Caries risk assessment (CAMBRA), Plaque index, International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) and Laser fluorescence evaluator (SOPRLIFE®, Acteon, France) and Oral behavioural and sociodemographic background will be collected.

Prior to the clinical study, there will be a laboratory based study using extracted teeth. The aim of this ex-vivo study is to assess the autofluorescence variation in dental carious lesions and compare this with International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS).

Condition or DiseaseIntervention/TreatmentPhase

    Detailed Description

    Research purpose:

    The research question is individuals with Diabetes Mellitus type 2 (T2DM) is more prone to dental caries?

    Several literature reviews point the lack of solid evidence clear association of the DM and dental caries (Ship, J.A., 2003; Taylor et al., 2004; Lamster, I.B., 2014; Garton et al., 2012; Leite et al., 2013).Also, a controversial result available of the epidemiology of dental caries among individuals with T2DM (Sampaio, Mello and Alves, 2011), besides limited knowledge about the biological explanation as seen with periodontal disease (Verhulst et al., 2019).Moreover, no study had a comprehensive evaluating of all potential caries risk factors. Thus this study developed a preliminary conceptual model in which 48 potential risk factors were identified and categorised into four domains: biological/intra-oral factors, medical factors, oral health behaviour, and sociodemographic factors.

    All these potential factors will be evaluated and analysed through different appoaches; clinical, salivary, microbial analyses and patient questionnaire.

    Recruitment process:

    All participants (n=182) who meet the selection criteria and agree to participate will be invited to complete written informed consent by the PI.

    Invitation letters will be sent by the DARE database holders to Diabetes patients who are on this database. Diabetes patients from Royal London Dental Hospital including outreach centres (Barkantine, Southend and Guttman), General Endocrinology and Metabolic Medicine, Diabetic clinics (including Mile End hospital) will also be invited using another invitation letter.

    Regarding the control group, adult patients attending Dental Institute including outreach centres (Barkantine, Southend and Guttman), staff within Queen Mary University of London and Barts Health Trust and volunteers who agree to participate will be recruited.

    All these participants will be approached and asked by the PI/CI whether they would be interested in taking part in this research. Participants who meet the inclusion criteria, will receive a written Patient Information Sheet (PIS) describing the study in details (Appendix 3). Subsequently, they will be asked by the Principal Investigator (AA) to complete and sign written informed consent (Appendix 4), if they wish to take part in this study. This phase will take around 15 minutes.

    Those who consent to take part will be given an appointment to attend the dental clinic for assessments at the Institute of Dentistry.

    Participants may enter the trial if the following apply:
    • Participants who are male or female ≥ 18 years of age.

    • For the test group, they have been diagnosed with type 2 Diabetes

    • For the control group, participants who are not diagnosed with type 2 Diabetes

    • Particiapants having minimum one natural tooth

    • They are capable of giving informed consent

    • They have the ability to understand and speak English

    • They are able and willing to comply with all trial requirements

    • They are not participating in another dental trial

    • They are not diagnosed for cognitive defect due to mental illness, depression, Alzheimer's disease, or dementia.

    • No antibiotic, no steroidal and/or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication used during the last 3 weeks

    • Participants who are not pregnant and also not breastfeeding

    • Participations who are not in another dental study testing different dental products during the previous three months and during the study period

    • Participants who are not currently taking Vitamin D supplements

    Exclusion criteria

    • Participants who are edentulous

    • Cognitive defect due to mental illness, depression, Alzheimer's disease, or dementia.

    • The presence of any hard or soft tissue tumours in the oral cavity

    • Patients undergoing chemo and/or radiation therapy

    • Any other significant disease or disorder which, in the opinion of the Investigator, may either put the participants at risk because of participation in the trial, or may influence the result of the trial, or the participant's ability to participate in the trial.

    • Any condition, which in the opinion of the investigator, would preclude participation by the subject (such as cross-infection control risk)

    • Participants who are prescribed long-term systematic antibiotics

    • Participants who are pregnant and breastfeeding

    • Participations who are in another dental study testing different dental products during the previous three months and during the study period

    • Participants who had additional fluoride treatment in the past 6/3 months

    • Participants who are prescribed to use high fluoridated toothpaste

    • Participants who are currently taking Vitamin D supplements

    Consent:
    The potentially capable participant will be asked to confirm that they:
    1. Read and understand the information sheet for the study.

    2. Had the opportunity to consider the information, ask questions and have had these answered satisfactorily.

    3. Understand that his participation is voluntary and that he is free to withdraw at any time without giving any reason, without his medical care or legal rights being affected.

    4. Understand that relevant sections of his dental notes may be looked at by responsible individuals from regulatory authorities where it is relevant to his taking part in this research and give permission for these individuals to have access to his records.

    5. Agree to take part in this study.

    6. Participants would have the opportunity to withdraw consent at any time and to ask for their samples to be destroyed or the data excluded from research

    Risk, burden, and benefits:

    Those patients who consent to participate will undergo a routine dental examination to detect the dental caries extent by the aid of dental examination kit and fluorescence image evaluator device and they will be expected to collect a sample of supragingival plaque, saliva and blood.

    This study is observational study without any intervention so no harm expected for these participants There may be some benefit to the participant, since they will receive full mouth examination and cleaning if required in addition to the blood test for HbAc and vitamin D level.

    Confidentiality:

    Confidentiality will be observed in relation to the Caldicott Principles. Only the CI and PI will have access to this information which will be coded and secured safely by password protection and encryption.

    Conflict of interest:

    There are no known conflict of interest.

    Study Design

    Study Type:
    Observational [Patient Registry]
    Anticipated Enrollment :
    182 participants
    Observational Model:
    Case-Control
    Time Perspective:
    Cross-Sectional
    Official Title:
    Holistic Approach to Investigate Protective and Risk Factors for Dental Caries in Patients With or Without Diabetes Type 2
    Actual Study Start Date :
    Dec 15, 2020
    Anticipated Primary Completion Date :
    Dec 1, 2022
    Anticipated Study Completion Date :
    Feb 1, 2023

    Arms and Interventions

    ArmIntervention/Treatment
    diabetic group ( Case)

    Total of 91 participants diagnosed with diabetes type 2

    Non diabetic group (control)

    Total of 91 participants healthy and not diagnosed with diabetes Mellitus

    Outcome Measures

    Primary Outcome Measures

    1. The extent of coronal dental caries [Initial screening]

      The extent of dental caries is investigated using well-establish scoring system called "International Caries Detection and Assessment System" (ICDAS)

    2. The extent of root dental caries [Initial screening]

      The extent of root dental caries is investigated using well-establish scoring system called severity index

    Secondary Outcome Measures

    1. Dental caries risk levels [Initial screening]

      Dental caries risk levels is measured using Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA)

    2. Estimation of Cariogenic bacteria (Mutans streptococci) [Initial screening]

      Estimation of Streptococcus mutans in supraginigival plaque by a real-time PCR assay

    3. Estimation of Cariogenic bacteria (Lactobacillus ) [Initial screening]

      Estimation of Lactobacillus bacteria in supraginigival plaque by a real-time PCR assay

    4. Estimation of Cariogenic bacteria (Actinomyces) [Initial screening]

      Estimation of Actinomyces bacteria in supraginigival plaque by a real-time PCR assay

    5. Estimation of total bacterial load [Initial screening]

      Estimation of total bacterial load in supraginigival plaque by a real-time PCR assay

    6. Estimation of unstimulated saliva flow rate [Initial screening]

      Estimation of unstimulated saliva flow rate by measuring saliva weight

    7. Estimation of buffer capacity [Initial screening]

      Estimation of buffer capacity using the saliva- check buffer testing mat kit

    8. Estimation of pH [Initial screening]

      Estimation of pH using the saliva- check buffer testing mat kit

    9. Estimation Spinnbarkeit [Initial screening]

      Estimation Spinnbarkeit using the NevaMeter device

    10. Estimation of stimulated whole saliva metabolic profile. [Initial screening]

      Estimation of stimulated whole saliva metabolic profile by using NMR

    11. Estimation of saliva electrolytes [Initial screening]

      Estimation of saliva electrolytes by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES)

    12. Measuring the blood HbA1c [Initial screening]

      Measuring the blood HbA1c levels using point of care system

    13. Measuring the vitamin D levels [Initial screening]

      Measuring the vitamin D levels using point of care system

    Eligibility Criteria

    Criteria

    Ages Eligible for Study:
    18 Years and Older
    Sexes Eligible for Study:
    All
    Accepts Healthy Volunteers:
    Yes
    Inclusion Criteria:
    • Participants may enter the trial if the following apply:

    • Participants who are male or female ≥ 18 years of age.

    • For the test group, they have been diagnosed with type 2 Diabetes

    • For the control group, participants who are not diagnosed with type 2 Diabetes

    • Particiapants having minimum one natural tooth

    • They are capable of giving informed consent

    • They have the ability to understand and speak English

    • They are able and willing to comply with all trial requirements

    • They are not participating in another dental trial

    • They are not diagnosed for cognitive defect due to mental illness, depression, Alzheimer's disease, or dementia.

    • No antibiotics, no steroidal and/or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication used during the last 3 weeks

    • Participants who are not pregnant and also not breastfeeding

    • Participations who are not in another dental study testing different dental products during the previous three months and during the study period

    • Participants who are not currently taking Vitamin D supplements

    Exclusion Criteria:
      • Participants may not enter the trial if ANY of the following apply:
    • Participants who are edentulous

    • Cognitive defect due to mental illness, depression, Alzheimer's disease, or dementia.

    • The presence of any hard or soft tissue tumours in the oral cavity

    • Patients undergoing chemo and/or radiation therapy

    • Any other significant disease or disorder which, in the opinion of the Investigator, may either put the participants at risk because of participation in the trial, or may influence the result of the trial, or the participant's ability to participate in the trial.

    • Any condition, which in the opinion of the investigator, would preclude participation by the subject (such as cross-infection control risk)

    • Participants who are prescribed long-term systematic antibiotics

    • Participants who are pregnant and breastfeeding

    • Participations who are in another dental study testing different dental products during the previous three months and during the study period

    • Participants who had additional fluoride treatment in the past 6/3 months

    • Participants who are prescribed to use high fluoridated toothpaste

    • Participants who are currently taking Vitamin D supplements

    Contacts and Locations

    Locations

    SiteCityStateCountryPostal Code
    1Royal London Dental HospitalLondonUnited KingdomE1 2AD

    Sponsors and Collaborators

    • Queen Mary University of London
    • The Novo Nordisk UK Research Foundation

    Investigators

    • Principal Investigator: AShwaq Alkahtani, BSc,MSc, Queen May University of London

    Study Documents (Full-Text)

    None provided.

    More Information

    Publications

    None provided.
    Responsible Party:
    Queen Mary University of London
    ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
    NCT04883086
    Other Study ID Numbers:
    • 261531
    First Posted:
    May 12, 2021
    Last Update Posted:
    May 12, 2021
    Last Verified:
    Sep 1, 2020
    Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product:
    No
    Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product:
    No
    Keywords provided by Queen Mary University of London
    Additional relevant MeSH terms:

    Study Results

    No Results Posted as of May 12, 2021